Constitution

Algeria 2020 Constitution

Preamble

The Algerian people are a free people; and they are resolved to remain so.

Stretching back over thousands of years, their history is marked by a progression of exertion and struggle that has turned Algeria into an everlasting seedbed of freedom and a land of glory and dignity.

Ever since the Numidian era and the Islamic Conquest, and up until the wars of liberation against colonialism, Algeria has always known at the epic moments witnessed in the Mediterranean basin how to find amongst her children pioneers of freedom, unity and progress, as well as builders of prosperous democratic states throughout the epochs of grandeur and peace.

The 1st November 1954 was a turning point in determining her future and a tremendous crowning of a ferocious resistance during which she withstood the diverse onslaughts on her culture and values, as well as the fundamental constituents of her identity, namely Islam, Arabism and Amazighism that the State has been relentlessly endeavouring to promote and develop each one of them; the roots of her current exertion in the various domains stretch back to the glorious past of her Nation.

The Algerian people rallied round the national movement and subsequently the National Liberation Front, and made the ultimate sacrifice in order to assume their collective destiny under the banner of their recovered freedom and national cultural identity and to build their authentic people’s constitutional institutions.

Under the leadership of the National Liberation Front and the National Liberation Army, the Algerian people crowned what their preeminent children made in terms of ultimate sacrifices during the people’s war of liberation with independence, and built a modern and fully sovereign state.

The Algerian people were determined to achieve a host of momentous victories marked by the reclaiming of national riches and the making of a state devoted exclusively to serving the masses, thus strengthening the legitimacy of the state that exercises its powers in the service of national independence and free of any foreign pressure.

The Algerian people’s resistance to violent attempts that threaten the unity and stability of the state has strengthened their adherence to the values of tolerance and peace. They decided, thanks to their unwavering belief and adherence to their unity, and in full sovereignty, to implement the Peace and National Reconciliation policy, which has yielded fruit that they are determined to preserve.

The Algerian people shall be determined to keep Algeria immune from Fitna, violence and all forms of extremism, including hate speech and all forms of discrimination, by establishing their spiritual and civilisational values which call for dialogue, reconciliation and fraternity within the framework of respect for the Constitution and the laws of the Republic.

The Algerian people express their eagerness to translate their aspirations in this Constitution to profound social transformations to build a new Algeria, which have been expressed peacefully since the launch of the popular movement on 22 February 2019, in full unity with its People’s National Army.

The Algerian people have always been struggling for freedom and democracy and they are resolved to uphold their national sovereignty and independence. With this Constitution, they are determined to establish a host of institutions based on the participation of every single Algerian man and woman in conducting public affairs and the capacity to achieve social justice, equality and freedom for everyone within the framework of a democratic and republican state. The Constitution aspires to be the appropriate framework for strengthening national ties and guaranteeing democratic freedoms for citizens.

Algeria expresses its commitment to work to prevent and combat corruption as enshrined in the African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption of 11 July 2003, the United Nations Convention against Corruption of 31 October 2003, and the Arab Convention to Fight Corruption of 21 December 2010.

By approving this Constitution, which is the manifestation of their proper genius, the reflection of their aspirations, the fruit of their determination and the outcome of the profound social mutations they have occasioned, the Algerian people shall substantiate with full appreciation and resoluteness more than ever before the ascendancy of the law.

The Constitution stands above all; it shall be the fundamental law safeguarding the individual and collective rights and freedoms. It shall protect the principle of the people’s freedom of choice, lend legitimacy to the exercise of powers and consecrate the democratic alternation of power through free and fair elections.

The Constitution shall ensure the separation and balance of powers, the independence of the judiciary, legal protections, oversight of the work of public authorities, and legal security.

The Algerian people express their complete commitment to human rights as specified in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 10 December 1948, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (both issued on 16 December 1966), the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights of 27 June 1981, and the Arab Charter on Human Rights of 23 May 2004.

The Algerian people shall remain committed to their choices in order to restrain class differences and abolish all aspects of regional disparities. They shall work towards building a productive and competitive economy within the framework of sustainable development and environmental protection.

The people remain concerned with environmental degradation and the negative effects of climate change, and they are eager to ensure protection of the natural environment and the rational use of natural resources in order to preserve them for future generations.

In recognition of the enormous energy they represent, the participation of the youth of Algeria— with their aspirations and determination to rise to the political, economic, social, and cultural challenges—is necessary to build all this and to protect the interests of future generations and guarantee a quality education for them by the family and the school.

The People’s National Army, successor of the National Liberation Army, shall assume its constitutional duties with utmost commitment and valiant preparedness to sacrifice whenever national duty demands. The Algerian people are proud of their National Army and grateful for all the efforts it has exhausted to protect the country from any foreign threat and for its quintessential role in protecting the citizens, institutions and properties from the plague of terrorism; those efforts have contributed to strengthening the nationalistic bond and consecrating the spirit of solidarity between the people and their army.

The State shall attend to the professionalism of the People’s National Army and to its modernisation in the manner that enables it to acquire the requisite capabilities to preserve national independence, defend Algeria’s national sovereignty, her unity and territorial integrity and protect her land, sea and air boundaries.

Armed with their deeply-ingrained spiritual values and loyal to their traditions of solidarity and justice, the people are confident in their ability to contribute effectively to the cultural, social and economic progress in the world of today and tomorrow.

Algeria, land of Islam, an integral part of the Great Arab Maghreb and an Arab, Mediterranean and African country is proud of her radiant Revolution of November 1 and is honoured by the respect she has gained and known how to preserve owing to its commitment to all the just causes of the world.

Committed to peace, human rights, and growth, Algeria’s foreign policy is directed toward strengthening its presence and influence on the international scene through partnerships based upon mutual interests that are totally concordant with Algeria’s political, economic, social and cultural national choices, with full respect for the goals and organizing principles of the UN, the African Union, and the Arab League.

The pride of the Algerian people, their sacrifices, sense of responsibility and inveterate adherence to freedom and social justice reflect the optimum guarantees of their respect for the principles of this Constitution which they shall adopt and bequeath to the future generations, the successors of the pioneers of freedom and the founders of the free society.

This preamble shall be part and parcel of this Constitution.

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