The difference between psychoanalysis and behaviorism is a subject worth researching for all psychology learners. Psychology, a discipline that examines the conduct and cognitive functions of human beings, uses several strategies to understand the diverse behavioral methods and opinions of persons. For this intention, various schools of thought help the psychologist to move toward this vocation via multiple viewpoints. Behaviorism and psychoanalysis are two kinds of such schools of thought. Behaviorist offers importance to the superficial conduct of people and assumes that behavior is a reaction to external stimuli. On the contrary, psychoanalysis underlines the centrality of the human psyche. They believe that the unconscious possess the possibility to encourage behavior. This is the main difference between the two strategies. This article offers a broader knowledge of these two schools of thought while underlining the difference.
What is behaviorism?
Behaviorism was established to point out the importance of researching the superficial conduct of people instead of focusing on the unobservable human psyche. They repudiated the mentalistic notion of psychoanalysis which has to do with unconsciousness. Arising as a school of thought in the 1920s, this was fronted by John B. Watson, Ivan Pavlov, and B. F skinner. Behaviorist underlines that the conduct is a reaction to external stimuli. Behaviorism is founded on the central belief of determinism, optimism, experimentalism, sentimentalism, and the belief of nurture against nature. Since this school of thought necessitate an elevated extent of empiricism, the utilization of investigations in laboratory environments with animals that have to do with dogs, pigeons, and rats was observable. Behaviorism consists of several hypotheses: the theory of classical by Pavlov and the operant practice by Skinner is essential. These two hypotheses underline various states of associative understanding. The hypothesis of classical conditioning by Ivan Pavlov states connections between stimuli. It has to do with conduct as a computerized reaction to stimuli. On the contrary, operant conditioning has to do with the connections of organisms to their activities with outcomes. Activities ensued by reinforcement levels up while those ensued by retributions lowers. This provides a total image of behaviorism where they assume that the conduct is understood and is a response to superficial aspects.
What is Psychoanalysis?
Psychoanalysis is a method fronted by Sigmund Freud, who is regarded as the founder of modern psychology. Contrary to behaviorism, this school of thought underlines the importance of the unconscious. Freud assumed that the unconscious encourages behavior. Based on the iceberg hypothesis, the human psyche consists of the conscious, unconscious, and preconscious. As the preconscious and conscious are convenient, the unconscious is not. This nurtures apprehensions, selfish requirements, violent justifications, corrupt desires, and more. This is the negative aspect of the human psyche. Freud assumed that unconscious manifestations appear as dreams, a blunder of speech, and mannerisms. Regarding disposition, the Freudian notion was created from three elements: ID, Superego, and ego. He assumes that the conduct is ruled by the interplay of these three. ID is described as the highest primitive and the lowest functional aspect of the character. ID strives for quick gratification and works on the pleasure doctrine. The ego negotiates between the ID and the occurrences of the external world to stimulate communication. It carries the ID’s pleasure pursuing requests until a useful thing can be discovered to fulfill the requirement and ease the anxiety. The ego functions on the fact tenet. Superego tries to impede ID dignity totally, while the ego only defers. Superego works on the morality tenets. Psychoanalysis as well talked about the expansion of human growth. This is exemplified through psycho-sexual phases, and these include the oral phase, anal phase, phallic phase, latency phase, and genital phase. Psychoanalysis also focuses on the defense agents, which has to do with contortion formed by the ego to safeguard the person in a healthy technique. Some defense tools involve designation, sublimation, rejection, repression, prediction, and more. This reduces the surplus energy. This point out that psychoanalysis is a different strategy from behaviorism.
Difference Between Psychoanalysis and Behaviorism
- Behaviorism is a school of thought that underlines the importance of behavior over the psyche.
- Behaviorist assumes that the behavior is understood and is a reaction to external stimuli.
- Behaviorists vastly embrace laboratory investigation to build hypotheses, including classical and operant conditioning.
- Psychoanalysis, on the contrary, underlines the significance of the human psyche, mostly the aspect of the unconscious.
- Psychoanalyst assumes that the unconscious encourages the behavior.
- The importance provided to investigating in a laboratory’s environment is reduced.
- In this understanding, these two schools of thought are broadly different since behaviorist discards the mentalistic picture of psychoanalysis, and psychoanalysis favors the research of the human psyche as the method of knowing the person.