Estonia 1992 Constitution (reviewed 2015)

Table of Contents


With unwavering faith and a steadfast will to strengthen and develop the state,

which embodies the inextinguishable right of the people of Estonia to national self-determination and which was proclaimed on 24 February 1918,

which is founded on liberty, justice and the rule of law,

which is created to protect the peace and defend the people against aggression from the outside, and which forms a pledge to present and future generations for their social progress and welfare,

which must guarantee the preservation of the Estonian people, the Estonian language and the Estonian culture through the ages,

the people of Estonia, on the basis of Article 1 of the Constitution which entered into force in 1938, and in the referendum held on 28 June 1992, have adopted the following Constitution.


Article 1

Estonia is an independent and sovereign democratic republic wherein the supreme power of state is vested in the people.

The independence and sovereignty of Estonia are timeless and inalienable.

Article 2

The land, territorial waters and airspace of the Estonian state are an inseparable and indivisible whole.

Estonia is politically a unitary state wherein administrative division shall be provided by law.

Article 3

The state authority shall be exercised solely pursuant to the Constitution and laws which are in conformity therewith. Generally recognized principles and rules of international law are an inseparable part of the Estonian legal system.

Laws shall be published in the prescribed manner. Only published laws have obligatory force.

Article 4

The activities of the Riigikogu (Parliament of Estonia), the President of the Republic, the Government of the Republic, and the courts shall be organized on the principle of separation and balance of powers.

Article 5

The natural wealth and resources of Estonia are national riches which shall be used economically.

Article 6

The official language of Estonia is Estonian.

Article 7

The national colors of Estonia are blue, black and white. The design of the national flag and the national coat of arms shall be provided by law.