Estonia 1992 Constitution (reviewed 2015)

Table of Contents


Article 154

All local issues shall be resolved and managed by local governments, which shall operate independently pursuant to law.

Duties may be imposed on a local government only pursuant to law or by agreement with the local government. Expenditure related to duties of the state imposed by law on a local government shall be funded from the state budget.

Article 155

Local governments are rural municipalities and cities.

Other local governments may be formed on the bases of and pursuant to procedure provided by law.

Article 156

The representative body of a local government is the council which shall be elected in free elections for a term of four years. The period of authority of a council may be shortened by an Act due to a merger or division of local governments or the inability of the council to act. The elections shall be general, uniform and direct. Voting shall be secret.

In elections to local authority councils, the right to vote is held, under conditions established by law, by persons who reside permanently in the territory of the local authority and have attained at least sixteen years of age.

Article 157

A local government shall have an independent budget for which the bases and procedure for drafting shall be provided by law.

A local government has the right, on the basis of law, to levy and collect taxes, and to impose duties.

Article 158

The boundaries of local governments shall not be altered without considering the opinion of the local governments concerned.

Article 159

A local government has the right to form unions and joint agencies with other local governments.

Article 160

The administration of local governments and the supervision of their activities shall be provided by law.