Liechtenstein 1921 Constitution (reviewed 2011)

Table of Contents


Article 27bis

  1. Human dignity shall be respected and protected.
  2. No one may be subjected to inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Article 27ter

  1. Every person shall have the right to life.
  2. The death penalty shall be prohibited.

Article 28

  1. Every citizen shall be freely entitled to reside in any locality within the territory of the State and to acquire property of any description, provided that he observes the detailed legal regulations relating to such matters.
  2. The entry and exit, stay and residence of foreigners shall be governed by international treaties and by legislation.
  3. Persons staying within the territory of the Principality shall be bound to observe its laws and shall be entitled to the protection afforded by the Constitution and the other laws.

Article 29

  1. All citizens shall be entitled to civic rights in conformity with the provisions of the present Constitution.
  2. All citizens who have completed their 18th year, have their normal residence in the Principality and whose right to vote has not been lost may exercise all political rights in matters of State.

Article 30

The conditions under which citizenship rights may be acquired or forfeited shall be determined by law.

Article 31

  1. All citizens shall be equal before the law. The public offices shall be equally open to them, subject to observance of the legal regulations.
  2. There shall be equality of rights between the sexes.
  3. The rights of aliens shall be determined in the first instance by treaties, or, in the absence of such, on the basis of reciprocity.

Article 32

  1. Personal liberty, the immunity of the home and the inviolability of letters and written matter are guaranteed.
  2. Except in the cases specified in law and in the manner thus prescribed, no person may be arrested or detained in custody, no houses or persons may be searched and no letters or written matter may be examined or seized.
  3. Persons arrested unlawfully or when demonstrably innocent and those proved innocent after conviction shall be entitled to full compensation from the State as determined by the courts. Whether and to what extent the State has a right of recourse against third parties in such cases shall be regulated by law.

Article 33

  1. Nobody may be deprived of his proper judge; special tribunals may not be instituted.
  2. Nobody may be threatened with or subjected to penalties other than those provided by the law.
  3. Accused persons shall have the right of defence in all penal proceedings.

Article 34

  1. The inviolability of private property is guaranteed; confiscation may only take place in such cases as determined by law.
  2. Copyright shall be regulated by law.

Article 35

  1. Where necessary in the public interest, property of any kind may be compulsorily assigned or subjected to an encumbrance, against appropriate compensation, the amount of which in cases of dispute shall be determined by the courts.
  2. The procedure for expropriation shall be regulated by law.

Article 36

Trade and industry shall be free within the limits prescribed by law; the extent to which exclusive commercial and industrial privileges may be admissible for specified periods of time shall be regulated by law.

Article 37

  1. Freedom of belief and conscience are guaranteed for all persons.
  2. The Roman Catholic Church is the State Church and as such enjoys the full protection of the State; other confessions shall be entitled to practise their creeds and to hold religious services to the extent consistent with morality and public order.

Article 38

The right of ownership and all other proprietary rights of ecclesiastical communities and religious associations in respect of their institutions, foundations and other possessions devoted to worship, education and charity are guaranteed. The administration of Church property in the parishes shall be regulated by a special law; the assent of the Church authorities shall be sought before the said law is promulgated.

Article 39

The enjoyment of civil and political rights shall not be dependent on religious belief nor may the latter constitute a ground for any dereliction of civil obligations.

Article 40

Every person shall be entitled to freely express his opinion and to communicate his ideas by word of mouth or in writing, print or pictures within the limits of the law and morality; no censorship may be exercised except in respect of public performances and exhibitions.

Article 41

The right of free association and assembly is guaranteed within the limits prescribed by law.

Article 42

The right to petition Parliament and the National Committee is guaranteed; not only individuals whose rights or interests are affected but also communes and corporations are entitled to have their wishes and requests brought before Parliament by a member of that body.

Article 43

The right of complaint is guaranteed. Any citizen shall be entitled to lodge a complaint regarding any action or procedure on the part of a public authority which is contrary to the Constitution, the law or the official regulations and detrimental to his rights or interests. Such complaint shall be addressed to that authority which is immediately superior to the authority concerned and may, if necessary, be pursued to the highest authority, except when the right of recourse may be barred by a legal restriction. If a complaint thus submitted is rejected by the superior authority, the latter shall be bound to declare to the complaining party the reasons for its decision.

Article 44

  1. Every man fit to bear arms shall be liable, up to the completion of his 60th year, to serve in the defence of his country in the event of emergency.
  2. Apart from this contingency, no armed units may be organised or maintained, except so far as may be necessary for the provision of the police service and the preservation of internal order. Detailed regulations regarding this matter shall be laid down by law.