Panama 1972 Constitution (reviewed 2004)

Table of Contents


With the ultimate purpose to strengthen the Nation; to guarantee the freedom, ensure democracy and institutional stability, exalt human dignity, promote social justice, general welfare, regional integration and invoking the protection of God, we decree the Political Constitution of the Republic of Panama.


Article 1

The Panamanian Nation is organized as a sovereign and independent State, and its name is the Republic of Panama. Its Government is unitary, republican, democratic and Representative.

Article 2

Public power emanates solely from the people. It is exercised by the State, in conformity with this Constitution, through Legislative, Executive, and Judicial Branches of Government, which act within limits and separately, but in harmonious cooperation.

Article 3

The territory of the Republic of Panama comprises the land surface, the territorial sea, the undersea continental shelf, the subsoil and the air space between Colombia and Costa Rica, in accordance with the boundary treaties concluded by Panama with those States.

National territory can never be ceded, assigned, or transferred, neither temporarily no partially, to another State.

Article 4

The Republic of panama abides by the rules of International Law.

Article 5

The territory of the Panamanian State is divided politically into Provinces, these, in turn, into Districts and the Districts into Boroughs.

Other political divisions may be created by law, either to be subject to special rules, or for reasons of administrative convenience or public service.

Article 6

The symbols of the Republic are the anthem, the flag, and the coat of arms adopted by Law No. 34 of 1949.

Article 7

Spanish is the official language of the Republic.