Romania 1991 Constitution (reviewed 2003)

Table of Contents


Article 1. The Romanian State

  1. Romania is a national state, sovereign and independent, unitary and indivisible.
  2. The form of government of the Romanian state is the Republic.
  3. Romania is a democratic and social state, governed by the rule of law, in which human dignity, the citizen’s rights and freedoms, the free development of human personality, justice and political pluralism represent supreme values, in the spirit of the democratic traditions of the Romanian people and the ideals of the Revolution of December 1989, and shall be guaranteed.
  4. The State shall be organized based on the principle of the separation and balance of powers-legislative, executive and judicial-within the framework of constitutional democracy.
  5. In Romania, the supremacy of the Constitution and the observance of the Constitution and the laws shall be mandatory.

Article 2. Sovereignty

  1. National sovereignty shall reside within the Romanian people which shall exercise it through its representative bodies, resulting from free, periodical and fair elections, as well as by referendum.
  2. No group or individual may exercise sovereignty on its own behalf.

Article 3. The Territory

  1. The territory of Romania is inalienable.
  2. The borders of the country are established by organic law, in accordance with the principles and other generally acknowledged norms of international law.
  3. Administratively, the territory is organized in communes, cities, and counties. According to the law, some cities are proclaimed municipalities.
  4. Foreign populations may not be displaced or colonized on the territory of the Romanian state.

Article 4. The Unity of the People and Equality Among Citizens

  1. The State is founded upon the unity of the Romanian people and the solidarity of its citizens.
  2. Romania is the common and indivisible homeland of all its citizens regardless of race, ethnic origin, language, religion, sex, opinion, political allegiance, wealth, or social origin.

Article 5. Citizenship

  1. Romanian citizenship may be acquired, preserved, and lost in accordance with the provisions stipulated by the relevant organic law.
  2. Romanian citizenship cannot be taken away from anyone who acquired it at birth.

Article 6. The Right To Identity

  1. The state recognizes and guarantees for members of the national minorities the right to preserve, develop, and express their ethnic, cultural, linguistic, and religious identity.
  2. The protective measures taken by the state to preserve, develop, and express the identity of the members of the national minorities shall be in accordance with the principles of equality and nondiscrimination in relation to the other Romanian citizens.

Article 7. Romanians Abroad

The state supports the strengthening of links with Romanians outside the country’s borders and works for the preservation, development, and expression of their ethnic, cultural, linguistic, and religious identity, by respecting the legislation of the state of which they are citizens.

Article 8. Pluralism and Political Parties

  1. Pluralism is a condition and a guarantee of constitutional democracy in Romanian society.
  2. Political parties are established and carry out their activity under the conditions of the law. They contribute to the definition and expression of the citizens’ political will, respecting national sovereignty, territorial integrity, the rule of law, and the principles of democracy.

Article 9. Trade Unions, Employers’ Associations, and Vocational Associations

Trade unions, employers’ associations, and vocational associations shall be established and shall carry out their activity according to their respective statutes, in conformity with the law. They shall contribute to the protection of their members’ rights and the promotion of their vocational, economic and social interests.

Article 10. International Relations

Romania maintains and develops peaceful relations with all states and, in this framework, relations of good neighborliness based on the principles and generally accepted norms of international law.

Article 11. International Law and Domestic Law

  1. The Romanian state pledges to fulfill to the letter and in good faith the obligations resulting from the treaties to which it is a party.
  2. The treaties ratified by Parliament in accordance with the law are part of the domestic legal order.
  3. If a treaty to which Romania is to become a party comprises provisions contrary to the Constitution, its ratification shall only take place after the revision of the Constitution.

Article 12. National Emblems

  1. Romania’s flag is tricolor; it consists of three vertical stripes: blue, yellow, and red, in this order, from the mast.
  2. The national day of Romania is 1 December.
  3. The national anthem of Romania is “Romanians, Awake.”
  4. The coat of arms of the country and the state seal are established by organic laws.

Article 13. Official Language

In Romania, the official language is Romanian.

Article 14. The Capital

The capital of Romania is the Municipality of Bucharest.