Preamble PART I. THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY 1. Name and territory of the Union 2. Admission or establishment of new States 2A. Sikkim to be associated with the Union 3. Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States Explanation I Explanation II 4. Laws made under articles 2 and 3 to provide for the amendment of the First and the Fourth Schedules and supplemental, incidental and consequential matters PART II. CITIZENSHIP 5. Citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution 6. Rights of citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to India from Pakistan 7. Rights of citizenship of certain migrants to Pakistan 8. Rights of citizenship of certain persons of Indian origin residing outside India 9. Persons voluntarily acquiring citizenship of a foreign State not to be citizens 10. Continuance of the rights of citizenship 11. Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law PART III. FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS General 12. Definition 13. Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights Right to Equality 14. Equality before law 15. Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth 16. Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment 17. Abolition of Untouchability 18. Abolition of titles Right to Freedom 19. Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc 20. Protection in respect of conviction for offences 21. Protection of life and personal liberty 21A. Right to education 22. Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases Right against Exploitation 23. Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour 24. Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc Right to Freedom of Religion 25. Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion Explanation I Explanation II 26. Freedom to manage religious affairs 27. Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion 28. Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions Cultural and Educational Rights 29. Protection of interests of minorities 30. Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions 31. Compulsory acquisition of property Saving of Certain Laws 31A. Saving of laws providing for acquisition of estates, etc 31B. Validation of certain Acts and Regulations 31C. Saving of laws giving effect to certain directive principles 31D. Saving of laws in respect of anti-national activities Right to Constitutional Remedies 32. Remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by this Part 32A. Constitutional validity of State laws not to be considered in proceedings under article 32 33. Power of Parliament to modify the rights conferred by this Part in their application to Forces, etc 34. Restriction on rights conferred by this Part while martial law is in force in any area 35. Legislation to give effect to the provisions of this Part Explanation PART IV. DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY 36. Definition 37. Application of the principles contained in this Part 38. State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people 39. Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State 39A. Equal justice and free legal aid 40. Organisation of village panchayats 41. Right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain cases 42. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief 43. Living wage, etc., for workers 43A. Participation of workers in management of industries 43B. Promotion of co-operative societies 44. Uniform civil code for the citizens 45. Provision for early childhood care and education to children below the age of six years 46. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections 47. Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health 48. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry 48A. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life 49. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance 50. Separation of judiciary from executive 51. Promotion of international peace and security PART IVA. FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES 51A. Fundamental duties PART V. THE UNION CHAPTER I. THE EXECUTIVE The President and Vice-President 52. The President of India 53. Executive power of the Union 54. Election of President Explanation 55. Manner of election of President Explanation 56. Term of office of President 57. Eligibility for re-election 58. Qualifications for election as President Explanation 59. Conditions of President’s office 60. Oath or affirmation by the President 61. Procedure for impeachment of the President 62. Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of President and the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy 63. The Vice-President of India 64. The Vice-President to be ex-officio Chairman of the Council of States 65. The Vice-President to act as President or to discharge his functions during casual vacancies in the office, or during the absence, of President 66. Election of Vice-President Explanation 67. Term of office of Vice-President 68. Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of Vice-President and the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy 69. Oath or affirmation by the Vice-President 70. Discharge of President’s functions in other contingencies 71. Matters relating to, or connected with, the election of a President or Vice-President 72. Power of President to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases 73. Extent of executive power of the Union Council of Ministers 74. Council of Ministers to aid and advise President 75. Other provisions as to Ministers The Attorney-General for India 76. Attorney-General for India Conduct of Government Business 77. Conduct of business of the Government of India 78. Duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the President, etc CHAPTER II. PARLIAMENT General 79. Constitution of Parliament 80. Composition of the Council of States 81. Composition of the House of the People 82. Readjustment after each census 83. Duration of Houses of Parliament 84. Qualification for membership of Parliament 85. Sessions of Parliament, prorogation and dissolution 86. Right of President to address and send messages to Houses 87. Special address by the President 88. Rights of Ministers and Attorney-General as respects Houses Officers of Parliament 89. The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Council of States 90. Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the office of Deputy Chairman 91. Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Chairman 92. The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration 93. The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the House of the People 94. Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker and Deputy Speaker 95. Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Speaker 96. The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration 97. Salaries and allowances of the Chairman and Deputy Chairman and the Speaker and Deputy Speaker 98. Secretariat of Parliament Conduct of Business 99. Oath or affirmation by members 100. Voting in Houses, power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum Disqualifications of Members 101. Vacation of seats 102. Disqualifications for membership Explanation 103. Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members 104. Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation under article 99 or when not qualified or when disqualified Powers Privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Members 105. Powers, Privileges, etc., of the Houses of Parliament and of the members and committees thereof 3. 106. Salaries and allowances of members Legislative Procedure 107. Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills 108. Joint sitting of both Houses in certain cases 4. 109. Special procedure in respect of Money Bills 110. Definition of “Money Bills 111. Assent to Bills Procedure in Financial Matters 112. Annual financial statement 113. Procedure in Parliament with respect to estimates 114. Appropriation Bills 115. Supplementary, additional or excess grants 116. Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants 117. Special provisions as to financial Bills Procedure Generally 118. Rules of procedure 119. Regulation by law of procedure in Parliament in relation to financial business 120. Language to be used in Parliament 121. Restriction on discussion in Parliament 122. Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Parliament CHAPTER III. LEGISLATIVE POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT 123. Power of President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament Explanation. CHAPTER IV. THE UNION JUDICIARY 124. Establishment and Constitution of Supreme Court Explanation I Explanation II 6. 124A. 124B. 124C. 125. Salaries, etc., of Judges 126. Appointment of acting Chief Justice 127. Appointment of ad hoc Judges 128. Attendance of retired Judges at sittings of the Supreme Court 129. Supreme Court to be a court of record 130. Seat of Supreme Court 131. Original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court 131A. Executive jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in regard to questions as to constitutional validity of Central laws 132. Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Courts in certain cases Explanation 133. Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Courts in regard to civil matters 2. 134. Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in regard to criminal matters 134A. Certificate for appeal to the Supreme Court 135. Jurisdiction and powers of the Federal Court under existing law to be exercisable by the Supreme Court 136. Special leave to appeal by the Supreme Court 137. Review of judgments or orders by the Supreme Court 138. Enlargement of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court 139. Conferment on the Supreme Court of powers to issue certain writs 139A. Transfer of certain cases 140. Ancillary powers of Supreme Court 141. Law declared by Supreme Court to be binding on all courts 142. Enforcement of decrees and orders of Supreme Court and orders as to discovery, etc 143. Power of President to consult Supreme Court 144. Civil and judicial authorities to act in aid of the Supreme Court 144A. Special provisions as to disposal of questions relating to constitutional validity of laws 145. Rules of Court, etc 146. Officers and servants and the expenses of the Supreme Court 147. Interpretation CHAPTER V. COMPTROLLER AND AUDITOR-GENERAL OF INDIA 148. Comptroller and Auditor-General of India 149. Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor-General 150. Form of accounts of the Union and of the States 151. Audit reports PART VI. THE STATES CHAPTER I. GENERAL 152. Definition CHAPTER II. THE EXECUTIVE The Governor 153. Governors of States 154. Executive power of State 155. Appointment of Governor 156. Term of office of Governor 157. Qualifications for appointment as Governor 158. Conditions of Governor’s office 159. Oath or affirmation by the Governor 160. Discharge of the functions of the Governor in certain contingencies 161. Power of Governor to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases 162. Extent of executive power of State Council of Ministers. 163. Council of Ministers to aid and advise Governor 164. Other provisions as to Ministers The Advocate-General for the State. 165. Advocate-General for the State Conduct of Government Business 166. Conduct of business of the Government of a State 167. Duties of Chief Minister as respects the furnishing of information to Governor, etc CHAPTER III. THE STATE LEGISLATURE General 168. Constitution of Legislatures in States 169. Abolition or creation of Legislative Councils in States 170. Composition of the Legislative Assemblies Explanation 171. Composition of the Legislative Councils 2. 172. Duration of State Legislatures 173. Qualification for membership of the State Legislature 174. Sessions of the State Legislature, prorogation and dissolution 175. Right of Governor to address and send messages to the House or Houses 176. Special address by the Governor 177. Rights of Ministers and Advocate-General as respects the Houses Officers of the State Legislature 178. The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly 179. Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker and Deputy Speaker 180. Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Speaker 181. The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration 182. The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council 183. Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Chairman and Deputy Chairman 184. Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Chairman 185. The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration 186. Salaries and allowances of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker and the Chairman and Deputy Chairman 187. Secretariat of State Legislature 2. Conduct of Business 188. Oath or affirmation by members 189. Voting in Houses, power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum Disqualifications of Members 190. Vacation of seats 191. Disqualifications for membership Explanation 192. Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members 193. Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation under article 188 or when not qualified or when disqualified Powers Privileges and Immunities of State Legislatures and their Members. 194. Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Legislatures and of the members and committees thereof 195. Salaries and allowances of members Legislative Procedure 196. Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills 197. Restriction on powers of Legislative Council as to Bills other than Money Bills 198. Special procedure in respect of Money Bills 199. Definition of “Money Bills 200. Assent to Bills 201. Bills reserved for consideration Procedure in Financial Matters 202. Annual financial statement 203. Procedure in Legislature with respect to estimates 204. Appropriation Bills 205. Supplementary, additional or excess grants 206. Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants 207. Special provisions as to financial Bills Procedure Generally 208. Rules of procedure 209. Regulation by law of procedure in the Legislature of the State in relation to financial business 210. Language to be used in the Legislature 211. Restriction on discussion in the Legislature 212. Courts not to inquire into proceedings of the Legislature CHAPTER IV. LEGISLATIVE POWER OF THE GOVERNOR 213. Power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature Explanation CHAPTER V. THE HIGH COURTS IN THE STATES 214. High Courts for States 215. High Courts to be courts of record 216. Constitution of High Courts 217. Appointment and conditions of the office of a Judge of a High Court Explanation 218. Application of certain provisions relating to Supreme Court to High Courts 219. Oath or affirmation by Judges of High Courts 220. Restriction on practice after being a permanent Judge Explanation 221. Salaries, etc., of Judges 222. Transfer of a Judge from one High Court to another 223. Appointment of acting Chief Justice 224. Appointment of additional and acting Judges 224A. Appointment of retired Judges at sittings of High Courts 225. Jurisdiction of existing High Courts 226. Power of High Courts to issue certain writs 226A. Constitutional validity of Central laws not to be considered in proceedings under article 226 227. Power of superintendence over all courts by the High Court 228. Transfer of certain cases to High Court 228A. Special provisions as to disposal of questions relating to constitutional validity of State laws 229. Officers and servants and the expenses of High Courts 230. Extension of jurisdiction of High Courts to Union territories 231. Establishment of a common High Court for two or more States CHAPTER VI. SUBORDINATE COURTS 233. Appointment of district judges 233A. Validation of appointments of, and judgments, etc., delivered by, certain district judges 234. Recruitment of persons other than district judges to the judicial service 235. Control over subordinate courts 236. Interpretation 237. Application of the provisions of this Chapter to certain class or classes of magistrates PART VIII. THE UNION TERRITORIES 239. Administration of Union territories 239A. Creation of local Legislatures or Council of Ministers or both for certain Union territories 239AA. Special provisions with respect to Delhi 2 3 7 239AB. Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery 239B. Power of administrator to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature 240. Power of President to make regulations for certain Union territories 241. High Courts for Union territories 242. Coorg PART IX. THE PANCHAYATS 243. Definitions 243A. Gram Sabha 243B. Constitution of Panchayats 243C. Composition of Panchayats 243D. Reservation of seats 243E. Duration of Panchayats etc 243F. Disqualifications for membership 243G. Powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayat 243H. Powers to impose taxes by, and Funds of, the Panchayats 243I. Constitution of Finance Commission to review financial position 243J. Audit of accounts of Panchayats 243K. Elections to the Panchayats 243L. Application to Union territories 243M. Part not to apply to certain areas 243N. Continuance of existing laws and Panchayats 243O. Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters PART IXA. THE MUNICIPALITIES 243P. Definitions 243Q. Constitution of Municipalities 243R. Composition of Municipalities 243S. Constitution and composition of Wards Committees, etc 243T. Reservation of seats 243U. Duration of Municipalities, etc 243V. Disqualifications for membership 243W. Powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities, etc 243X. Power to impose taxes by, and Funds of, the Municipalities 243ZE. Committee for Metropolitan planning 243ZF. Continuance of existing laws and Municipalities 243ZG. Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters Part IXB. The Co-Operative Societies 243ZH. Definitions 243ZI. Incorporation of co-operative societies 243ZJ. Number and term of members of board and its office bearers 243ZK. Election of members of board 243ZL. Supersession and suspension of board and interim management 243ZM. Audit of accounts of co-operative societies 243ZN. Convening of general body meetings 243ZO. Right of a member to get information 243ZP. Returns 243ZQ. Offences and penalties 243ZR. Application to multi-State co-operative societies 243ZS. Application to Union territories 243ZT. Continuance of existing laws PART X. THE SCHEDULED AND TRIBAL AREAS 244. Administration of Scheduled Areas and Tribal Areas 244A. Formation of an autonomous State comprising certain tribal areas in Assam and creation of local Legislature or Council of Ministers or both therefor PART XI. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNION AND THE STATES CHAPTER I. LEGISLATIVE RELATIONS Distribution of Legislative Powers 245. Extent of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States 246. Subject-matter of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States 246A Explanation 247. Power of Parliament to provide for the establishment of certain additional courts 248. Residuary powers of legislation 249. Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to a matter in the State List in the national interest 250. Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to any matter in the State List if a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation 251. Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament under articles 249 and 250 and laws made by the legislatures of States 252. Power of Parliament to legislate for two or more States by consent and adoption of such legislation by any other State 253. Legislation for giving effect to international agreements 254. Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament and laws made by the Legislatures of States 255. Requirements as to recommendations and previous sanctions to be regarded as matters of procedure only CHAPTER II. ADMINISTRATIVE RELATIONS General 256. Obligation of States and the Union 257. Control of the Union over States in certain cases 257A. Assistance to States by deployment of armed forces or other forces of the Union 258. Power of the Union to confer powers, etc., on States in certain cases 258A. Power of the States to entrust functions to the Union 259. Armed Forces in States in Part B of the First Schedule 260. Jurisdiction of the Union in relation to territories outside India 261. Public acts, records and judicial proceedings Disputes relating to Waters 262. Adjudication of disputes relating to waters of inter-State rivers or river valleys Co-ordination between States 263. Provisions with respect to an inter-State Council PART XII. FINANCE, PROPERTY, CONTRACTS AND SUITS CHAPTER I. FINANCE General 264. Interpretation 265. Taxes not to be imposed save by authority of law 266. Consolidated Funds and public accounts of India and of the States 267. Contingency Fund Distribution of Revenues between the Union and the States 268. Duties levied by the Union but collected and appropriated by the States 269. Taxes levied and collected by the Union but assigned to the States Explanation 269A Explanation 270. Taxes levied and distributed between the Union and the States 271. Surcharge on certain duties and taxes for purposes of the Union 272. Taxes which are levied and collected by the Union and may be distributed between the Union and the States 273. Grants in lieu of export duty on jute and jute products 274. Prior recommendation of President require to Bills affecting taxation in which States are interested 275. Grants from the Union to certain States 276. Taxes on professions, trades, callings and employments 277. Savings 278. Agreement with States in Part B of the First Schedule with regard to certain financial matters 279. Calculation of “net proceeds”, etc 279A 280. Finance Commission 281. Recommendations of the Finance Commission Miscellaneous Financial Provisions 282. Expenditure defrayable by the Union or a State out of its revenues 283. Custody, etc., of Consolidated Funds, Contingency Funds and moneys credited to the public accounts 284. Custody of suitors- deposits and other moneys received by public servants and courts 285. Exemption of property of the Union from State taxation 286. Restrictions as to imposition of tax on the sale or purchase of goods 287. Exemption from taxes on electricity 288. Exemption from taxation by States in respect of water or electricity in certain cases Explanation 289. Exemption of property and income of a State from Union taxation 290. Adjustment in respect of certain expenses and pensions 290A. Annual payment to certain Devaswom Funds 291. Privy purse sums of Rulers CHAPTER II. BORROWING 292. Borrowing by the Government of India 293. Borrowing by States CHAPTER III. PROPERTY, CONTRACTS, RIGHTS, LIABILITIES, OBLIGATIONS AND SUITS 294. Succession to property, assets, rights, liabilities and obligations in certain cases 295. Succession to property, assets, rights, liabilities and obligations in other cases 296. Property accruing by escheat or lapse or as Bona vacantia Explanation 297. Things of value within territorial waters or continental shelf and resources of the exclusive economic zone to vest in the Union 298. Power to carry on trade, etc 299. Contracts 300. Suits and proceedings CHAPTER IV. RIGHT TO PROPERTY 300A. Persons not to be deprived of property save by authority of law PART XIII. TRADE, COMMERCE AND INTERCOURSE WITHIN THE TERRITORY OF INDIA 301. Freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse 302. Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commerce and intercourse 303. Restrictions on the legislative powers of the Union and of the States with regard to trade and commerce 304. Restrictions on trade, commerce and intercourse among States 305. Saving of existing laws and laws providing for State monopolies 306. Power of certain States in Part B of the First Schedule to impose restrictions on trade and commerce 307. Appointment of authority for carrying out the purposes of articles 301 to 304 PART XIV. SERVICES UNDER THE UNION AND THE STATES CHAPTER I. SERVICES 308. Interpretation 309. Recruitment and conditions of service of persons serving the Union or a State 310. Tenure of office of persons serving the Union or a State 311. Dismissal, removal or reduction in rank of persons employed in civil capacities under the Union or a State 312. All-India services 312A. Power of Parliament to vary or revoke conditions of service of officers of certain services 313. Transitional provisions 314. Provision for protection of existing officers of certain services CHAPTER II. PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSIONS 315. Public Service Commissions for the Union and for the States 316. Appointment and term of office of members 317. Removal and suspension of a member of a Public Service Commission 318. Power to make regulations as to conditions of service of members and staff of the Commission 319. Prohibition as to the holding of offices by members of Commission on ceasing to be such members 320. Functions of Public Service Commissions 321. Power to extend functions of Public Service Commissions 322. Expenses of Public Service Commissions 323. Reports of Public Service Commissions PART XIVA. TRIBUNALS 323A. Administrative tribunals 323B. Tribunals for other matters Explanation PART XV. ELECTIONS 324. Superintendence, direction and control of elections to be vested in an Election Commission 325. No person to be ineligible for inclusion in, or to claim to be included in a special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste or sex 326. Elections to the House of the People and to the Legislative Assemblies of States to be on the basis of adult suffrage 327. Power of Parliament to make provision with respect to elections to Legislatures 328. Power of Legislature of a State to make provision with respect to elections to such Legislature 329. Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters 329A. Special provision as to elections to Parliament in the case of Prime Minister and Speaker PART XVI. SPECIAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO CERTAIN CLASSES 330. Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the House of the People Explanation 331. Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the House of the People 332. Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the Legislative Assemblies of the States 333. Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the Legislative Assemblies of the States 334. Reservation of seats and special representation to cease after seventy years 335. Claims of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to services and posts 336. Special provision for Anglo-Indian community in certain services 337. Special provision with respect to educational grants for the benefit of Anglo-Indian community 338. National Commission for Scheduled Castes 338A. National Commission for Scheduled Tribes 339. Control of the Union over the administration of Scheduled Areas and the welfare of Scheduled Tribes 340. Appointment of a Commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes 341. Scheduled Castes 342. Scheduled Tribes PART XVII. OFFICIAL LANGUAGE CHAPTER I. LANGUAGE OF THE UNION 343. Official language of the Union 344. Commission and Committee of Parliament on official language CHAPTER II. REGIONAL LANGUAGES 345. Official language or languages of a State 346. Official language for communication between one State and another or between a State and the Union 347. Special provision relating to language spoken by a section of the population of a State CHAPTER III. LANGUAGE OF THE SUPREME COURT, HIGH COURTS, ETC 348. Language to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts and for Acts, Bills, etc 349. Special procedure for enactment of certain laws relating to language CHAPTER IV. SPECIAL DIRECTIVES 350. Language to be used in representations for redress of grievances 350A. Facilities for instruction in mother-tongue at primary stage 350B. Special Officer for linguistic minorities 351. Directive for development of the Hindi language PART XVIII. EMERGENCY PROVISIONS 352. Proclamation of Emergency Explanation 353. Effect of Proclamation of Emergency 354. Application of provisions relating to distribution of revenues while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation 355. Duty of the Union to protect States against external aggression and internal disturbance 356. Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in States 357. Exercise of legislative powers under Proclamation issued under article 356 358. Suspension of provisions of article 19 during emergencies 359. Suspension of the enforcement of the rights conferred by Part III during emergencies 359A. Application of this Part to the State of Punjab 360. Provisions as to financial emergency PART XIX. MISCELLANEOUS 361. Protection of President and Governors and Rajpramukhs 361A. Protection of publication of proceedings of Parliament and State Legislatures Explanation 361B. Disqualification for appointment on remunerative political post Explanation 362. Rights and privileges of Rulers of Indian States 363. Bar to interference by courts in disputes arising out of certain treaties, agreements, etc 363A. Recognition granted to Rulers of Indian States to cease and Privy purses to be abolished 364. Special provisions as to major ports and aerodromes 365. Effect of failure to comply with, or to give effect to, directions given by the Union 366. Definitions 367. Interpretation PART XX. AMENDMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION 368. Power of Parliament to amend the Constitution and procedure therefor PART XXI. TEMPORARY, TRANSITIONAL AND SPECIAL PROVISIONS 369. Temporary power to Parliament to make laws with respect to certain matters in the State List as if they were matters in the Concurrent List 370. Temporary provisions with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir 371. Special provision with respect to the States of Maharashtra and Gujarat 371A. Special provision with respect to the State of Nagaland Explanation 371B. Special provision with respect to the State of Assam 371C. Special provision with respect to the State of Manipur Explanation 371D. Special provisions with respect to the State of Andhra Pradesh 371E. Establishment of Central University in Andhra Pradesh 371F. Special provisions with respect to the State of Sikkim 371G. Special provision with respect to the State of Mizoram 371H. Special provision with respect to the State of Arunachal Pradesh 371I. Special provision with respect to the State of Goa 371J. Special provisions with respect to State of Karnataka 372. Continuance in force of existing laws and their adaptation Explanation I Explanation II Explanation III Explanation IV 372A. Power of the President to adapt laws 373. Power of President to make order in respect of persons under preventive detention in certain cases 374. Provisions as to Judges of the Federal Court and proceedings pending in the Federal Court or before His Majesty in Council 375. Courts, authorities and officers to continue to function subject to the provisions of the Constitution 376. Provisions as to Judges of High Courts 377. Provisions as to Comptroller and Auditor-General of India 378. Provisions as to Public Service Commissions 378A. Special provisions as to duration of Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly 379-391. Rep. by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 29 and Sch 392. Power of the President to remove difficulties PART XXII. SHORT TITLE, COMMENCEMENT, AUTHORITATIVE TEXT IN HINDI AND REPEALS 393. Short title 394. Commencement 394A. Authoritative text in the Hindi language 395. Repeals FIRST SCHEDULE. (Articles 1 and 4) I. THE STATES 1. Andhra Pradesh 2. Assam 3. Bihar 4. Gujarat 5. Kerala 6. Madhya Pradesh 7. Tamil Nadu 8. Maharashtra 9. Karnataka 10. Orissa 11. Punjab 12. Rajasthan 13. Uttar Pradesh 14. West Bengal 15. Jammu and Kashmir 16. Nagaland 17. Haryana 18. Himachal Pradesh 19. Manipur 20. Tripura 21. Meghalaya 22. Sikkim 23. Mizoram 24. Arunachal Pradesh 25. Goa II. THE UNION TERRITORIES 1. Delhi 2. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands 3. Lakshadweep 4. Dadra and Nagar Haveli 5. Daman and Diu 6. Pondicherry 7. Chandigarh SECOND SCHEDULE. (Articles 59(3), 65(3), 75(6), 97, 125, 148(3), 158(3), 164(5), 186 and 221) PART A. PROVISIONS AS TO THE PRESIDENT AND THE GOVERNORS OF STATES PART B PART C. PROVISIONS AS TO THE SPEAKER AND THE DEPUTY SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF THE PEOPLE AND THE CHAIRMAN AND THE DEPUTY CHAIRMAN OF THE COUNCIL OF STATES AND THE SPEAKER AND THE DEPUTY SPEAKER OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY AND THE CHAIRMAN AND THE DEPUTY CHAIRMAN OF THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL OF A STATE PART D. PROVISIONS AS TO THE JUDGES OF THE SUPREME COURT AND OF THE HIGH COURTS 9 10 PART E. PROVISIONS AS TO THE COMPTROLLER AND AUDITOR-GENERAL OF INDIA 12 THIRD SCHEDULE. Forms of Oaths or Affirmations (Articles 75(4), 99, 124(6), 148(2), 164(3), 188 and 219) I. Form of oath of office for a Minister for the Union II. Form of oath of secrecy for a Minister for the Union A. Form of oath or affirmation to be made by a candidate for election to Parliament B. Form of oath or affirmation to be made by a member of Parliament IV. Form of oath or affirmation to be made by the Judges of the Supreme Court and the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India V. Form of oath of office for a Minister for a State VI. Form of oath of secrecy for a Minister for a State A. Form of oath or affirmation to be made by a candidate for election to the Legislature of a State B. Form of oath or affirmation to be made by a member of the Legislature of a State VIII. Form of oath or affirmation to be made by the Judges of a High Court FIFTH SCHEDULE. Provisions as to the Administration and Control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes (Article 244 (1)) PART A. GENERAL 1. Interpretation 2. Executive power of a State in Scheduled Areas 3. Report by the Governor to the President regarding the administration of Scheduled Areas PART B. ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL OF SCHEDULED AREAS AND SCHEDULED TRIBES 4. Tribes Advisory Council 5. Law applicable to Scheduled Areas PART C. SCHEDULED AREAS 6. Scheduled Areas PART D. AMENDMENT OF THE SCHEDULE 7. Amendment of the Schedule SIXTH SCHEDULE. Provisions as to the Administration of Tribal Areas in the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram (Articles 244 (2) and 275 (1)) 1. Autonomous districts and autonomous regions 2. Constitution of District Councils and Regional Councils 3. Powers of the District Councils and Regional Councils to make laws 4. Administration of justice in autonomous districts and autonomous regions 5. Conferment of powers under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, and the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898, on the Regional and District Councils and on certain courts and officers for the trial of certain suits, cases and offences 6. Powers of the District Council to establish primary schools, etc 7. District and Regional Funds 8. Powers to assess and collect land revenue and to impose taxes 9. Licences or leases for the purpose of prospecting for, or extraction of, minerals 10. Power of District Council to make regulations for the control of moneylending and trading by non-tribals 11. Publication of laws, rules and regulations made under the Schedule 12. Application of Acts of Parliament and of the Legislature of the State of Assam to autonomous districts and autonomous regions in the state of Assam 12A. Application of Acts of Parliament and of the Legislature of the State of Meghalaya to autonomous districts and autonomous regions in the State of Meghalaya 12AA. Application of Acts of Parliament and of the Legislature of the State of Tripura to the autonomous district and autonomous regions in the State of Tripura 12B. Application of Acts of Parliament and of the Legislature of the State of Mizoram to autonomous districts and autonomous regions in the State of Mizoram 13. Estimated receipts and expenditure pertaining to autonomous districts to be shown separately in the annual financial statement 14. Appointment of Commission to inquire into and report on the administration of autonomous districts and autonomous regions 15. Annulment or suspension of acts and resolutions of District and Regional Councils 16. Dissolution of a District or a Regional Council 17. Exclusion of areas from autonomous districts in forming constituencies in such districts 18. omitted by s. 71(i) and Eighth Sch., ibid. (w.e.f. 21-1-1972) 19. Transitional provisions 20. Tribal areas TABLE PART 1 PART 2 PART 2A PART 3 20A. Dissolution of the Mizo District Council Explanation 20B. Autonomous regions in the Union territory of Mizoram to be autonomous districts and transitory provisions consequent thereto 20C. Interpretation 21. Amendment of the Schedule SEVENTH SCHEDULE. (Article 246) List I. Union List List II. State List List III. Concurrent List NINTH SCHEDULE. (Article 31B) Explanation TENTH SCHEDULE. Provisions as to disqualification on ground of defection (Articles 102(2) and 191(2)) 1. Interpretation 2. Disqualification on ground of defection Explanation 3. Disqualification on ground of defection not to apply in case of split 4. Disqualification on ground of defection not to apply in case of merger 5. Exemption 6. Decision on questions as to disqualification on ground of defection 7. Bar of jurisdiction of courts 8. Rules
WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:
JUSTICE, social, economic and political;
LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
EQUALITY of status and of opportunity;
and to promote among them all
FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;
IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.
PART I. THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY
1. Name and territory of the Union
India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States.
The States and the territories thereof shall be as specified in the First Schedule.
The territory of India shall comprise-
the territories of the States;
the Union territories specified in the First Schedule; and
such other territories as may be acquired.
2. Admission or establishment of new States
Parliament may by law admit into the Union, or establish, new States on such terms and conditions as it thinks fit.
2A. Sikkim to be associated with the Union
Rep. by the Constitution (Thirty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1975, s. 5(w.e.f. 26-4-1975).
3. Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States
Parliament may by law-
form a new State by separation of territory from any State or by uniting two or more States or parts of States or by uniting any territory to a part of any State;
increase the area of any State;
diminish the area of any State;
alter the boundaries of any State;
alter the name of any State:
Provided that no Bill for the purpose shall be introduced in either House of Parliament except on the recommendation of the President and unless, where the proposal contained in the Bill affects the area, boundaries or name of any of the States, the Bill has been referred by the President to the Legislature of that State for expressing its views thereon within such period as may be specified in the reference or within such further period as the President may allow and the period so specified or allowed has expired.
In this article, in clauses (a) to (e), “State” includes a Union territory, but in the proviso, “State” does not include a Union territory.
The power conferred on Parliament by clause (a) includes the power to form a new State or Union territory by uniting a part of any State or Union territory to any other State or Union territory.
4. Laws made under articles 2 and 3 to provide for the amendment of the First and the Fourth Schedules and supplemental, incidental and consequential matters
Any law referred to in article 2 or article 3 shall contain such provisions for the amendment of the First Schedule and the Fourth Schedule as may be necessary to give effect to the provisions of the law and may also contain such supplemental, incidental and consequential provisions (including provisions as to representation in Parliament and in the Legislature or Legislatures of the State or States affected by such law) as Parliament may deem necessary.
No such law as aforesaid shall be deemed to be an amendment of this Constitution for the purposes of article 368.