Bhutan 2008 Constitution


WE, the people of Bhutan:

BLESSED by the Triple Gem, the protection of our guardian deities, the wisdom of our leaders, the everlasting fortunes of the Pelden Drukpa and the guidance of His Majesty the Druk Gyalpo Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck;

SOLEMNLY pledging ourselves to strengthen the sovereignty of Bhutan, to secure the blessings of liberty, to ensure justice and tranquility and to enhance the unity, happiness and well-being of the people for all time;

DO HEREBY ordain and adopt this Constitution for the Kingdom of Bhutan on the Fifteenth Day of the Fifth Month of the Male Earth Rat Year corresponding to the Eighteenth Day of July, Two Thousand and Eight.

Article 1. Kingdom of Bhutan

  1. Bhutan is a Sovereign Kingdom and the Sovereign power belongs to the people of Bhutan.
  2. The form of Government shall be that of a Democratic Constitutional Monarchy.
  3. The international territorial boundary of Bhutan is inviolable and any alteration of areas and boundaries thereof shall be done only with the consent of not less than three-fourths of the total number of members of Parliament.
  4. The territory of Bhutan shall comprise twenty Dzongkhags with each Dzongkhag consisting of Gewogs and Thromdes. Alteration of areas and boundaries of any Dzongkhag or Gewog shall be done only with the consent of not less than three-fourths of the total number of members of Parliament.
  5. The National Flag and the National Emblem of Bhutan shall be as specified in the First Schedule of this Constitution.
  6. The National Anthem of Bhutan shall be as specified in the Second Schedule of this Constitution.
  7. The National Day of Bhutan shall be the Seventeenth Day of December of each year.
  8. Dzongkha is the National Language of Bhutan.
  9. This Constitution is the Supreme Law of the State.
  10. All laws in force in the territory of Bhutan at the time of adopting this Constitution shall continue until altered, repealed or amended by Parliament. However, the provisions of any law, whether made before or after the coming into force of this Constitution, which are inconsistent with this Constitution, shall be null and void.
  11. The Supreme Court shall be the guardian of this Constitution and the final authority on its interpretation.
  12. The rights over mineral resources, rivers, lakes and forests shall vest in the State and are the properties of the State, which shall be regulated by law.
  13. There shall be separation of the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary and no encroachment of each other’s powers is permissible except to the extent provided for by this Constitution.
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