Preamble Title One. General Provisions Article 1. The Swiss Confederation Article 2. Aims Article 3. Cantons Article 4. National languages Article 5. Rule of law Article 5a. Subsidiarity Article 6. Individual and collective responsibility Title Two. Fundamental Rights, Citizenship and Social Goals Chapter 1. Fundamental Rights Article 7. Human dignity Article 8. Equality before the law Article 9. Protection against arbitrary conduct and principle of good faith Article 10. Right to life and to personal freedom Article 11. Protection of children and young people Article 12. Right to assistance when in need Article 13. Right to privacy Article 14. Right to marry and to have a family Article 15. Freedom of religion and conscience Article 16. Freedom of expression and of information Article 17. Freedom of the media Article 18. Freedom to use any language Article 19. Right to basic education Article 20. Academic freedom Article 21. Freedom of artistic expression Article 22. Freedom of assembly Article 23. Freedom of association Article 24. Freedom of domicile Article 25. Protection against expulsion, extradition and deportation Article 26. Guarantee of ownership Article 27. Economic freedom Article 28. Right to form professional associations Article 29. General procedural guarantees Article 29a. Guarantee of access to the courts Article 30. Judicial proceedings Article 31. Deprivation of liberty Article 32. Criminal proceedings Article 33. Right of petition Article 34. Political rights Article 35. Upholding of fundamental rights Article 36. Restrictions on fundamental rights Chapter 2. Citizenship and Political Rights Article 37. Citizenship Article 38. Acquisition and deprivation of citizenship Article 39. Exercise of political rights Article 40. The Swiss abroad Chapter 3. Social Objectives Article 41 Title Three. Confederation, Cantons and Communes Chapter 1. Relations between the Confederation and the Cantons Section 1. Duties of the Confederation and the Cantons Article 42. Duties of the Confederation Article 43. Duties of the Cantons Article 43a. Principles for the allocation and fulfilment of state tasks Section 2. Cooperation between the Confederation and the Cantons Article 44. Principles Article 45. Participation in federal decision-making Article 46. Implementation of federal law Article 47. Autonomy of the Cantons Article 48. Intercantonal agreements Article 48a. Declaration of general application and requirement of participation Article 49. Precedence of and compliance with federal law Section 3. Communes Article 50 Section 4. Federal Guarantees Article 51. Cantonal constitutions Article 52. Constitutional order Article 53. Number and territory of the Cantons Chapter 2. Powers Section 1. Relations with Foreign States Article 54. Foreign relations Article 55. Participation of the Cantons in foreign policy decisions Article 56. Relations between the Cantons and foreign states Section 2. Security, National Defence, Civil Defence Article 57. Security Article 58. Armed forces Article 59. Military service and alternative service Article 60. Armed forces organisation, training and equipment Article 61. Civil defence Section 3. Education, Research and Culture Article 61a. Swiss Education Area Article 62. School education Article 63. Vocational and professional education and training Article 63a. Higher education institutions Article 64. Research Article 64a. Continuing education and training Article 65. Statistics Article 66. Education grants Article 67. Encouragement of children and young people Article 67a. Musical education Article 68. Sport Article 69. Culture Article 70. Languages Article 71. Cinema Article 72. Church and state Section 4. Environment and Spatial Planning Article 73. Sustainable development Article 74. Protection of the environment Article 75. Spatial planning Article 75a. National Land Survey Article 75b. Second homes Article 76. Water Article 77. Forests Article 78. Protection of natural and cultural heritage Article 79. Fishing and hunting Article 80. Protection of animals Section 5. Public Construction Works and Transport Article 81. Public Construction Works Article 82. Road transport Article 83. National roads Article 84. Alpine transit traffic Article 85. Heavy vehicle charge Article 86. Consumption tax on motor fuels and other traffic taxes 3bis Article 87. Railways and other modes of transport Article 88. Footpaths and hiking trails Section 6. Energy and Communications Article 89. Energy policy Article 90. Nuclear energy Article 91. Transport of energy Article 92. Postal and telecommunications services Article 93. Radio and television Section 7. The Economy Article 94. Principles of the economic system Article 95. Professional activities in the private sector Article 96. Competition policy Article 97. Consumer protection Article 98. Banks and insurance companies Article 99. Monetary policy Article 100. Economic policy Article 101. Foreign economic policy Article 102. National economic supply Article 103. Structural policy Article 104. Agriculture Article 105. Alcohol Article 106. Gambling Article 107. Weapons and war material Section 8. Housing, Employment, Social Security and Health Article 108. Construction of housing and home ownership Article 109. Landlord and tenant Article 110. Employment Article 111. Old-age, survivors’ and invalidity pension provision Article 112. Old-age, Survivors’ and Invalidity Insurance Article 112a. Supplementary benefits Article 112b. Promoting the rehabilitation of people eligible for invalidity benefits Article 112c. Aid for elderly people and people with disabilities Article 113. Occupational pension scheme Article 114. Unemployment insurance Article 115. Support for persons in need Article 116. Child allowances and maternity insurance Article 117. Health and accident insurance Article 118. Health protection Article 118a. Complementary medicine Article 118b. Research on human beings Article 119. Reproductive medicine and gene technology involving human beings Article 119a. Transplant medicine Article 120. Non-human gene technology Section 9. Residence and Permanent Settlement of Foreign Nationals Article 121. Legislation on foreign nationals and asylum Article 121a. Control of immigration Section 10. Civil Law, Criminal Law, Weights and Measures Article 122. Civil law Article 123. Criminal law Article 123a Article 123b. No time limit for the right to prosecute or for penalties for sexual or pornography offences involving prepubescent children Article 124. Victim support Article 125. Weights and measures Chapter 3. Financial System Article 126. Financial management Article 127. Principles of taxation Article 128. Direct taxes Article 129. Tax harmonisation Article 130. Value added tax Article 131. Special consumption taxes Article 132. Stamp duty and withholding tax Article 133. Customs duties Article 134. Exclusion of cantonal and communal taxation Article 135. Equalisation of financial resources and burdens Title Four. The People and the Cantons Chapter 1. General Provisions Article 136. Political rights Article 137. Political parties Chapter 2. Initiative and Referendum Article 138. Popular initiative requesting the complete revision of the Federal Constitution Article 139. Popular initiative requesting a partial revision of the Federal Constitution in specific terms Article 139a. Repealed in the Popular Vote on 27 Sept. 2009, with effect from 27 Sept. 2009 Article 139b. Procedure applicable to an initiative and counter-proposal Article 140. Mandatory referendum Article 141. Optional referendum Article 141a. Implementation of international treaties Article 142. Required majorities Title Five. Federal Authorities Chapter 1. General Provisions Article 143. Eligibility for election Article 144. Incompatibility Article 145. Term of office Article 146. State liability Article 147. Consultation procedure Chapter 2. Federal Assembly Section 1. Organisation Article 148. Status Article 149. Composition and election of the National Council Article 150. Composition and election of the Council of States Article 151. Sessions Article 152. Presidency Article 153. Parliamentary committees Article 154. Parliamentary groups Article 155. Parliamentary Services Section 2. Procedure Article 156. Separate proceedings Article 157. Joint proceedings Article 158. Public meetings Article 159. Quorum and required majority Article 160. Right to submit initiatives and motions Article 161. Prohibition of voting instructions Article 162. Immunity Section 3. Powers Article 163. Form of Federal Assembly enactments Article 164. Legislation Article 165. Emergency legislation Article 166. Foreign relations and international treaties Article 167. Finance Article 168. Appointments Article 169. Supervisory control Article 170. Evaluation of effectiveness Article 171. Tasks of the Federal Council Article 172. Relations between the Confederation and the Cantons Article 173. Further duties and powers Chapter 3. Federal Council and Federal Administration Section 1. Organisation and Procedure Article 174. Federal Council Article 175. Composition and election Article 176. Presidency Article 177. Principle of collegiality and allocation to departments Article 178. Federal Administration Article 179. Federal Chancellery Section 2. Powers Article 180. Government policy Article 181. Right to initiate legislation Article 182. Lawmaking and implementation of legislation Article 183. Finances Article 184. Foreign relations Article 185. External and internal security Article 186. Relations between the Confederation and the Cantons Article 187. Further duties and powers Chapter 4. Federal Supreme Court and other Judicial Authorities Article 188. Status Article 189. Jurisdiction of the Federal Supreme Court 1bis Article 190. Applicable law Article 191. Access to the Federal Supreme Court Article 191a. Other federal judicial authorities Article 191b. Cantonal judicial authorities Article 191c. Independence of the judiciary Title Six. Revision of the Federal Constitution and Transitional Provisions Chapter 1. Revision Article 192. Principle Article 193. Total revision Article 194. Partial revision Article 195. Commencement Chapter 2. Transitional Provisions Article 196. Transitional provisions in terms of the Federal Decree of 18 December 1998 on a new Federal Constitution 1. Transitional provision to Article 84 (Transalpine transit traffic) 2. Transitional provision to Article 85 (Flat-rate heavy vehicle charge) 3. Transitional provision to Article 87 (Railways and other carriers) 4. Transitional provision to Article 90 (Nuclear energy) 5. Transitional provision to Article 95 (Private economic activity) 6. Transitional provision to Article 102 (National economic supply) 7. Transitional provision to Article 103 (Structural policy) 8. Transitional provision to Article 106 (Gambling) 9. Transitional provision to Article 110 para. 3 (National Day of the Swiss Confederation) 10. Repealed by the popular vote on 28 Nov 2004, with effect from 1 Jan. 2008 11. Transitional provision to Article 113 (Occupational Pension Scheme) 12. Transitional provision to Article 126 (Financial management) 13. Transitional provision to Article 128 (Duration of tax levy) 14. Transitional provision to Article 130 (Value Added Tax) 15. Transitional provision to Article 131 (Beer tax) 16. Repealed by the popular vote on 28 Nov 2004, with effect from 1 Jan. 2008 Article 197. Transitional provisions following the adoption of the Federal Constitution of 18 April 1999 1. Accession of Switzerland to the United Nations 2. Transitional provision to Article 62 (School education) 3. Transitional provision to Article 83 (National roads) 4. Transitional provision to Article 112b (Promoting the rehabilitation of people eligible for invalidity benefits) 5. Transitional provision to Article 112c (Aid for elderly people and people with disabilities) 7. Transitional Provision to Article 120 (Non-human gene technology) 8. Transitional provision to Article 121 (Residence and Permanent Settlement of Foreign Nationals) 9. Transitional provision to Article 75b (Second homes) 10. Transitional provision to Article 95 para. 3 11. Transitional provision to Article 121a (Control of immigration) Final Provisions of the Federal Decree of 18 December 1998 II IV
Chapter 3. Federal Council and Federal Administration
Section 1. Organisation and Procedure
Article 174. Federal Council
The Federal Council is the supreme governing and executive authority of the Confederation.
Article 175. Composition and election
The Federal Council has seven members.
The members of the Federal Council are elected by the Federal Assembly following each general election to the National Council.
They are elected for a term of office of four years. Any Swiss citizen eligible for election to the National Council may be elected to the Federal Council.
In electing the Federal Council, care must be taken to ensure that the various geographical and language regions of the country are appropriately represented.
Article 176. Presidency
The President of the Confederation chairs the Federal Council.
The President and the Vice-President of the Federal Council are elected by the Federal Assembly from the members of the Federal Council for a term of office of one year.
Re-election for the following year is not permitted. The President may not be elected Vice-President for the following year.
Article 177. Principle of collegiality and allocation to departments
The Federal Council reaches its decisions as a collegial body.
For the purposes of preparation and implementation, the business of the Federal Council is allocated to its individual members according to department.
Business may be delegated to and directly dealt with by departments or their subordinate administrative units; in such cases, the right to legal recourse is guaranteed.
Article 178. Federal Administration
The Federal Council is in charge of the Federal Administration. It ensures that it is organised appropriately and that it fulfils its duties effectively.
The Federal Administration is organised into Departments; each Department is headed by a member of the Federal Council.
Administrative tasks may by law be delegated to public or private organisations, entities or persons that do not form part of the Federal Administration.
Article 179. Federal Chancellery
The Federal Chancellery is the general administrative office of the Federal Council. It is headed by a Federal Chancellor.
Section 2. Powers
Article 180. Government policy
The Federal Council decides on the objectives of federal government policy and the means by which they should be achieved. It plans and coordinates state activities.
It informs the general public fully and in good time about its activities, unless overriding public or private interests prevent this.
Article 181. Right to initiate legislation
The Federal Council submits drafts of Federal Assembly legislation to the Federal Assembly.
Article 182. Lawmaking and implementation of legislation
The Federal Council enacts legislative provisions in the form of ordinances, provided it has the authority to do so under the Constitution or the law.
It ensures the implementation of legislation, the resolutions of the Federal Assembly and the judgments of federal judicial authorities.
Article 183. Finances
The Federal Council draws up the financial plan and the draft budget and prepare the federal accounts.
It ensures orderly financial management.
Article 184. Foreign relations
The Federal Council is responsible for foreign relations, subject to the right of participation of the Federal Assembly; it represents Switzerland abroad.
It signs and ratifies international treaties. It submits them to the Federal Assembly for approval.
Where safeguarding the interests of the country so requires, the Federal Council may issue ordinances and rulings. Ordinances must be of limited duration.
Article 185. External and internal security
The Federal Council takes measures to safeguard external security, independence and neutrality of Switzerland.
It takes measures to safeguard internal security.
It may in direct application of this Article issue ordinances and rulings in order to counter existing or imminent threats of serious disruption to public order or internal or external security. Such ordinances must be limited in duration.
In cases of emergency, it may mobilise the armed forces. Where it mobilises more than 4,000 members of the armed forces for active service or where the deployment of such troops is expected to last for more than three weeks, the Federal Assembly must be convened without delay.
Article 186. Relations between the Confederation and the Cantons
The Federal Council is responsible for maintaining relations between the Confederation and the Cantons and collaborates with the latter.
It may approve cantonal legislation when required to do so by federal law.
It may object to treaties between Cantons or between Cantons and foreign countries.
It ensures compliance with federal law, as well as the cantonal constitutions and cantonal treaties and takes the measures required to fulfil this duty.
Article 187. Further duties and powers
The Federal Council also has the following duties and powers:
supervising the Federal Administration and the other bodies entrusted with federal duties.
reporting regularly to the Federal Assembly on the conduct of its business as well as on the situation in Switzerland.
making appointments that do not fall within the remit of other authorities.
dealing with appeals, where the law so provides.
Other duties and powers may be delegated by law to the Federal Council.