Section 2. Security, National Defence, Civil Defence
Article 57. Security
The Confederation and the Cantons shall within the scope of their powers ensure the security of the country and the protection of the population.
They shall coordinate their efforts in the area of internal security.
Article 58. Armed forces
Switzerland shall have armed forces. In principle, the armed forces shall be organised as a militia.
The armed forces serve to prevent war and to maintain peace; they defend the country and its population. They shall support the civilian authorities in safeguarding the country against serious threats to internal security and in dealing with exceptional situations. Further duties may be provided for by law.
The deployment of the armed forces is the responsibility of the Confederation.
Article 59. Military service and alternative service
Every Swiss man is required to do military service. Alternative civilian service shall be provided for by law.
Military service is voluntary for Swiss women.
Any Swiss man who does not do military or alternative service is liable to pay a tax. This tax is levied by the Confederation and assessed and collected by the Cantons.
The Confederation shall legislate for fair compensation for loss of income.
Persons who suffer damage to their health or lose their lives while doing military or alternative civilian service are entitled to appropriate support from the Confederation, whether for themselves or for their next of kin.
Article 60. Armed forces organisation, training and equipment
Armed forces legislation, together with the organisation, training and equipment of the armed forces, is the responsibility of the Confederation.
[Repealed by the popular vote on 28 Nov 2004, with effect from 1 Jan. 2008]
The Confederation may, in return for appropriate compensation, take over the running of cantonal military installations
Article 61. Civil defence
The legislation on the civil defence of persons and property against the effects of armed conflicts is the responsibility of the Confederation.
The Confederation shall legislate on the deployment of civil defence units in the event of disasters and emergencies.
It may declare civil defence service to be compulsory for men. For women, such service is voluntary.
The Confederation shall legislate on fair compensation for loss of income.
Persons who suffer damage to their health or lose their lives while doing civil defence service are entitled to appropriate support from the Confederation, whether for themselves or for their next of kin.
Section 3. Education, Research and Culture
Article 61a. Swiss Education Area
The Confederation and the Cantons shall, within the scope of their powers, jointly ensure the high quality and accessibility of the Swiss Education Area.
They shall coordinate their efforts and ensure their cooperation through joint administrative bodies and other measures.
They shall ensure in the fulfilment of their duties that general and vocational courses of study achieve equal recognition in society.
Article 62. School education
The Cantons are responsible for the system of school education.
They shall ensure the provision of an adequate basic education that is available to all children. Basic education is mandatory and is managed or supervised by the state. At state schools it is free of charge.
The Cantons shall ensure that adequate special needs education is provided to all children and young people with disabilities up to the age of 20.
Where harmonisation of school education is not achieved by means of coordination in the areas of school entry age and compulsory school attendance, the duration and objectives of levels of education, and the transition for one level to another, as well as the recognition of qualifications, the Confederation shall issue regulations to achieve such harmonisation.
The Confederation shall regulate the start of the school year.
The Cantons shall participate in the drafting of federal legislation on school education that affects cantonal responsibilities, and special account shall be taken of their opinions.
Article 63. Vocational and professional education and training
The Confederation shall issue regulations on vocational and professional education and training.
It shall encourage the provision of a diverse and accessible range of courses in vocational and professional education and training.
Article 63a. Higher education institutions
The Confederation shall manage the Federal Institutes of Technology. It may establish, take over or manage additional universities and other higher education institutions.
It shall support the cantonal universities and may make financial contributions to other higher education institutions that it recognises.
The Confederation and the Cantons are jointly responsible for the coordination and guarantee of quality in Swiss higher education. In fulfilling this responsibility, they shall take account of the autonomy of the universities and the various bodies responsible for them and ensure the equal treatment of institutions with the same functions.
In order to fulfil their duties, the Confederation and the Cantons shall enter into agreements and delegate certain powers to joint administrative authorities. The law shall regulate the powers that may be delegated, and determine the principles governing the organisation of and procedures for coordination.
If the Confederation and the Cantons fail to reach their common goals by means of coordination, the Confederation shall issue regulations on levels of studies and the transition from one level to another, on postgraduate education and on the recognition of institutions and qualifications. In addition, the Confederation may impose standard funding principles for subsidising of universities, and may make subsidies contingent on universities sharing particularly cost-intensive activities.
Article 64. Research
The Confederation shall promote scientific research and innovation.
It may make its support conditional in particular on quality assurance and coordination being guaranteed.
It may establish, take over or run research institutes.
Article 64a. Continuing education and training
The Confederation shall specify principles governing continuing education and training.
It may promote continuing education and training.
The law shall specify the fields of and the criteria for such promotion.
Article 65. Statistics
The Confederation shall compile the necessary statistical data on the status and trends in the population, the economy, society, education, research, the land and the environment in Switzerland.
It may issue regulations on the harmonisation and maintenance of official registers in order to reduce the cost of compiling data.
Article 66. Education grants
The Confederation may contribute to cantonal expenditure on grants provided to students at universities and higher education institutions. It may encourage the intercantonal harmonisation of education grants and lay down principles for the payment of education grants.
It may also supplement cantonal measures while preserving cantonal autonomy in education matters by taking its own measures to promote education.
Article 67. Encouragement of children and young people
In fulfilling their duties, the Confederation and Cantons shall take account of the special need of children and young people to receive encouragement and protection.
The Confederation may supplement cantonal measures by supporting extracurricular work with children and young people.
Article 67a. Musical education
The Confederation and Cantons shall encourage musical education, in particular that of children and young people.
They shall endeavour within the scope of their powers to ensure high-quality music teaching in schools. If the Cantons are unable to harmonise the goals of music teaching in schools by means of coordination, the Confederation shall issue the required regulations.
In consultation with the Cantons, the Confederation shall set out principles to help young people to engage in musical activities and to encourage musically gifted persons.
Article 68. Sport
The Confederation shall encourage sport, and in particular education in sport.
It shall operate a sports school.
It may issue regulations on sport for young people and declare the teaching of sport in schools to be compulsory.
Article 69. Culture
Cultural matters are a cantonal responsibility.
The Confederation may support cultural activities of national interest as well as art and music, in particular in the field of education.
In the fulfilment of its duties, it shall take account of the cultural and linguistic diversity of the country.
Article 70. Languages
The official languages of the Confederation are German, French and Italian. Romansh is also an official language of the Confederation when communicating with persons who speak Romansh.
The Cantons shall decide on their official languages. In order to preserve harmony between linguistic communities, the Cantons shall respect the traditional territorial distribution of languages and take account of indigenous linguistic minorities.
The Confederation and the Cantons shall encourage understanding and exchange between the linguistic communities.
The Confederation shall support the plurilingual Cantons in the fulfilment of their special duties.
The Confederation shall support measures by the Cantons of Graubünden and Ticino to preserve and promote the Romansh and the Italian languages.
Article 71. Cinema
The Confederation may encourage Swiss film production and film culture.
It may issue regulations to promote the diversity and the quality of the cinematographic works that are offered.
Article 72. Church and state
The regulation of the relationship between the church and the state is the responsibility of the Cantons.
The Confederation and the Cantons may within the scope of their powers take measures to preserve public peace between the members of different religious communities.
The construction of minarets is prohibited.
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