Malaria and typhoid have always been two of the most regularly contagious ailments experienced in the tropical world. Malaria is an infectious ailment triggered by protozoa that the anopheline mosquitoes transfer. On the contrary, enteric fever is described as an acute systemic ailment featured by fever, pain in the abdomen, headache, typhoid, and paratyphoid are the two variants of fever triggered by salmonella typhi and paratyphi. Even though malaria is triggered by a protozoan, enteric fever which includes typhoid and paratyphoid fever, is triggered by a bacterium. This is the significant difference between the two ailments.
What is Malaria?
Malaria is defined as a contagious ailment triggered by protozoa which are transferred by the anopheline mosquitoes. Four primary kinds of protozoa can trigger human malaria. These involve Plasmodium vivax, plasmodium falciparum, plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium ovale. There is an increased incidence and preponderance of malaria in tropical nations due to the temperature and monsoon rains that favor the propagation of vector mosquitoes since the prevailing infectious-triggering and protozoan.
There is an incubation duration of ten to twenty-one days. Often, there is a persistent fever at the beginning. After a while, the main tertian or quaternary fever shows up. The patient can possess malaise, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting with fever. Clinical images can differ based on the kind of protozoan that triggers the disease.
Malaria triggered by Plasmodium Vivax and Plasmodium Ovale
There is often a moderate disease with advancing chronic anemia. Tertian fever is the evident characteristic of the infection triggered by these protozoans. Hepatosplenomegaly can as well be available. Recurrence can occur due to the reactivation of hypnozoites that stays stagnant.
Malaria triggered by Plasmodium Falciparum
This is the vastly brutal condition of malaria. In most occurrences, the illness is self-restricting but can provide elevation to deadly intricacies in a minority of situations. The patient’s situation can worsen immediately, and death can occur in a case of some hours. Elevated parasitemia is a dependable indicator of disease intensity. Cerebral malaria is the highest worried intricacies of falciparum malaria. Modified consciousness, convulsions, and confusion are the recommended symptoms of cerebral malaria.
Characteristics of Intensed Falciparum Malaria
- Gastrointestinal, which involves splenic rupture, diarrhea, and jaundice.
- Respiratory, which includes acute respiratory distress syndrome and tachypnea.
- Renal, which consists of oliguria, uremia, and hemoglobinuria.
- Metabolic, which includes metabolic acidosis and hypoglycemia.
- CNS, which has to do with cerebral malaria and prostration.
- Blood, including chronic anemia, bleeding, and transmitted intravascular coagulation.
Recognition of parasites in dense or slim blood films is the diagnostic examination. In endemic regions, malaria should be presumed anytime a patient demonstrates a febrile infection.
Based on the uncomplicated malaria, chloroquine is the preferred medication. Primaquine is initiated whenever the parasitemia is victoriously removed to eliminate the hypnozoites. The medication course should be furthered for about two to three weeks. In complicated malaria, intravenous artesunate immensely impacts the management; intensive maintenance may be required. Transfusion is endorsed in chronic anemia.
What is Typhoid?
Enteric fever is an acute systemic disease featured by fever, belly pain, and headache. Typhoid and paratyphoid are the two types of fever triggered by salmonella typhi and paratyphi. The intake of polluted water and food transfers the contagious mechanism.
Medical characteristics show up after an incubation duration of 10 to 14 days. These have to do with belly pain, maculopapular inflammation, intermittent fever, hepatosplenomegaly, headache, and lymphadenopathy, and if not managed, the patient can acquire intricacies which include intestinal perforation, meningitis, lobar pneumonia, and more.
Explicit diagnosis is via the culture of organisms acquired from blood specimens obtained from the patient. Leucopenia is regular but non-certain.
Currently, quinolones are the preferred medications in the treatment of enteric fever. Initial cotrimoxazole and amoxicillin were utilized as well. However, their significance has decreased due to incoming resistance against them.
Difference Between Malaria and Typhoid
- Malaria is a contagious illness triggered by protozoa that the anopheline mosquitoes transfer. While enteric fever, known as typhoid, is an acute systemic disease featured by headache, fever, and belly pain.
- Protozoan is transferred by anopheline mosquitoes while consuming contaminated food, and water transfers typhoid.
- In malaria, the contagious mechanism is protozoan, while in typhoid, the transferred mechanism is a bacterium.
- Malaria has an incubation duration of ten to twenty-one days, whereas the clinical characteristics of typhoid show up after an incubation duration of ten to fourteen days.