Japan 1889 Constitution

CHAPTER II. Rights and Duties of Subjects

Art 18

The conditions necessary for being a Japanese subject shall be determined by law.

Art 19

Japanese subjects may, according to qualifications determined in laws or ordinances, be appointed to civil or military offices equally, and may fill any other public offices.

Art 20

Japanese subjects are amenable to service in the army and navy, according to the provisions of law.

Art 21

Japanese subjects are amenable to the duty of paying taxes, according to the provisions of law.

Art 22

Japanese subjects shall have the liberty of abode and of changing the same within the limits of law.

Art 23

No Japanese subject shall be arrested, detained, tried or punished, unless according to law.

Art 24

No Japanese subject shall be deprived of his right of being tried by judges determined by law.

Art 25

Except in the cases provided for in the law, the house of no Japanese subject shall be entered or searched without his consent.

Art 26

Except in the cases mentioned in the law, the secrecy of the letters of every Japanese subject shall remain inviolable.

Art 27

The right of property of every Japanese subject shall remain inviolable.

Measures necessary to be taken for the public benefit shall be provided by law.

Art 28

Japanese subjects shall, within limits not prejudicial to peace and order, and not antagonistic to their duties as subjects, enjoy freedom of religious belief.

Art 29

Japanese subjects shall within the limits of the law, enjoy the liberty of speech, writing, publication, public meeting and association.

Art 30

Japanese subjects may present petitions, by observing the proper forms of respect and by complying with the rules specially provided for the same.

Art 31

The provisions in the present chapter shall not affect the exercise of the powers appertaining to the Emperor in times of war or in cases of national emergency.

Art 32

Each and every one of the provisions contained in the preceding articles of the present chapter, that are not in conflict with the laws or the rules and discipline of the army and navy, shall apply to the officers and men of the army and navy.

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