Japan 1889 Constitution

CHAPTER I The Emperor

Article 1

The Empire of Japan shall be reigned over and governed by a line of Emperors unbroken for ages eternal.

Art 2

The Imperial throne shall be succeeded to by imperial male descendants, according to the provisions of the Imperial House Law.

Art 3

The Emperor is sacred and inviolable.

Art 4

The Emperor is the head of the Empire, combining in himself the rights of sovereignty, and exercises them, according to the provisions of the present constitution.

Art 5

The Emperor exercises the legislative power with the consent of the Imperial Diet.

Art 6

The Emperor gives sanction to laws and orders them to be promulgated and executed.

Art 7

The Emperor convokes the Imperial Diet, opens, closes and prorogues it, and dissolves the House of Representatives.

Art 8

The Emperor, in consequence of an urgent necessity to maintain public safety or to avert public calamities, issues, when the Imperial Diet is not sitting, imperial ordinances in place of laws.

Art 9

The Emperor issues, or causes to be issued, the ordinances necessary for the carrying out of the laws, or for the maintenance of the public peace and order, and for the promotion of the welfare of the subjects. But no ordinance shall in any way alter any of the existing laws.

Art 10

The Emperor determines the organization of the different branches of the administration, and the salaries of all civil and military officers, and appoints and dismisses the same. Exceptions especially provided for in the present constitution or in other laws shall be in accordance with the respective provisions (bearing thereon).

Art 11

The Emperor has the supreme command of the army and navy.

Art 12

The Emperor determines the organization and peace standing of the army and navy.

Art 13

The Emperor declares war, makes peace and concludes treaties.

Art 14

The Emperor proclaims a state of seige. The conditions and effects of a state of seige shall be determined by law.

Art 15

The Emperor confers titles of nobility, rank, orders and other marks of honor.

Art 16

The Emperor orders amnesty, pardon, commutation of punishment and rehabilitation.

Art 17

A regency shall be instituted in conformity with the provisions of the Imperial House Law.

The regent shall exercise the powers appertaining to the Emperor in his name.