Japan 1889 Constitution

CHAPTER V. The Judicial Power

Art 57

The judicial power shall be exercised by the courts of law according to law, in the name of the Emperor.

The organization of the courts of law shall be determined by law.

Art 58

The judges shall be appointed from among those who possess proper qualifications according to law.

No judge shall be deprived of his position, unless by way of criminal sentence, or disciplinary punishment.

Rules for disciplinary punishment shall be determined by law.

Art 59

Trials and judgments of a court shall be conducted publicly. When, however, there exists any fear that such publicity may be prejudicial to peace and order, or to the maintenance of public morality, the public trial may be suspended by provision of law or by the decision of the court.

Art 60

All matters that fall within the competency of special tribunals shall be specially provided for by law.

Art 61

No suit which relates to rights alleged to have been infringed by the illegal measures of the executive authorities, and which should come within the competency of the Court of Administrative Litigation, specially established by law, shall be taken cognizance of by a court of law.