Bavaria 1808 Constitution

Part V. Of the Judiciary

Article 1

The judiciary shall be managed by upper and lower courts, in appropriate numbers. Only one supreme court shall exist for the whole Kingdom.

Article 2

All courts shall be connected, lead by the same final judgments and reasons for their rulings.

Article 3

The members of the judiciary council shall be appointed for life by the King, and may only lose their positions through a formal dictum.

Article 4

In criminal cases the King may grant mercy, exempt from or soften punishment, but in no case may he impede a pending litigation or investigation in progress, nor may he withdraw a judge from a legal party.

Article 5

The royal financial administration shall take legislation regarding all disputable affairs of civil law to the royal tribunals.

Article 6

The confiscation of goods shall not take place, apart from in cases of desertion; however, the income of a criminal may be sequestered throughout his lifetime in order to pay for the cost of a trial.

Article 7

The entire Kingdom shall establish its own civil code and criminal law.